Tube Bending and Pipe Bending Concepts

Tube bending is among the fundamental processes in metal fabrication. Industrial pipes and tubes really are a vital item in manufacturing for construction and also the transportation of many other materials. Nearly all bent tubes are utilized as structural components for example handrails, as aspects of metal furniture frames and vehicle roll cages, while piping can be used for water and oil products, hydraulic systems and exhaust lines.

Tube Bending Processes

There are many metal fabrication approaches for bending tubes and pipes, including draw, press, ram and roll bending. Both apply pressure to bend the metal and you will find common concepts to these, including elongation and bend radius. There’s also tool functions which have specific methods for affecting the curvature for example mandrels and wipers. The right application of all of the concepts influence the caliber of the pipe and tube manufacture.

Bending Forces

Whenever a tube is bent, the wall from the tube in the point it’s bent alterations in a mix of ways. The outside wall stretches and becomes thinner, as the inner section becomes thicker and compressed. It is an integral part from the pipe bending tactic to control this deformation to make certain an even bend is achieved.

The bigger the tube, and also the wider the radius from the bend, the not as likely deformation is a concern. It’s the thinner tubes and tighter bends that have a tendency to lead to further problems. Deciding the way a tube ought to be treated is gauged by figuring out the wall factor, the ratio from the tubes wall thickness to the diameter. An identical comparison will be made between your centreline radius from the pipe and also the exterior diameter to find out when the bending radius is at manageable limits. Mixing the 2 factors enables the maker to define the complexness from the bend, and then the correct bending method to use.

In which the walls from the tube won’t be particularly compromised, a fundamental die set may be used, for example bend, clamp and pressure die array. In which the bend have a more pronounced impact on the fabric from the tube, a mandrel could be more appropriate.


In which a fundamental die set isn’t appropriate, a madrel is going to be used. It’s a device that may be placed within the pipe at the purpose of the curvature to supply support for that pipe although it undergoes the bending process. In which a bend will created significant thinning from the tube wall, as well as an elevated chance of a flattening from the pipe at the purpose of the curvature the mandrel will safeguard from this weakness.

Mandrels could be built often, together with a single plug or a number of connected balls that flex and adjust themselves as the bend is used towards the tube. In addition to supplying this internal support, a plug mandrel will help apply additional bending pressure on thicker pipes that may be harder to shape.

Wiper Dies

Whenever a tube is positioned under significant stress during bending, for example whenever a thin pipe is bent to some tight radius, internal wall compressions can happen leading to wrinkling from the pipe wall. A wiper die reduces the risk of wrinkling occurring. The wiper is made to be wedged in to the groove between your tube and also the bending die. This will make for any tighter fit between your die and also the pipe leaving no space for that wrinkle to build up. Wiper Dies are frequently used plus a mandrel to own pipe an optimum amount of support.


Elongation describes the amount that the fabric a pipe is made of could be extended before suffering structural failure. As stretching from the material will invariably occur to some degree during pipe bending, it is really an important concern for manufacturers. The overall rule is the fact that because the bending radius grows smaller sized, the greater the fabric will stretch.

Oftentimes selecting the best metal or material for the application is determined by the quantity of elongation that may be expected during bending and fabrication. For instance, stainless is definitely an costly option to make a tube from, it includes a greater maximum elongation than other grades of steel, so it may be selected as the best material when the pipe requires bends having a tight radius.

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